Bidding process

The bidding process for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games was officially launched on May 16, 2007.[2] The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by September 13, 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each applicant city by January 14, 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on June 4, 2008: Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro, and Tokyo (which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics). The IOC did not promote Doha to the Candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, due to their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut.[3] Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10 member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on September 2, one month before elections.[4] Seven cities submitted bids for 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics on September 13, 2007, aiming to host the Games of the XXXI Olympiad.[1] All of them were recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) on September 14, 2007, becoming Applicant cities.[2] Although several cities submitted to be in consideration to host the 2016 Olympics, including New York City and Los Angeles, on June 4, 2008, the IOC Executive Board shortlisted the four strongest bids to become Candidate cities. Those cities were Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo; the decisions were made during a meeting in Athens, Greece.[3][4] The remaining Applicant cities—Baku, Doha and Prague—were eliminated.[5] The four Candidate cities were selected according to a detailed tudy of the Applicant Files received by the IOC Working Group on January 14, 2008.[6] The four cities submitted the Candidature Files to the IOC on February 11, 2009.[7] They were analyzed by the IOC Evaluation Commission, which made site inspections in Chicago (April 4–7, 2009), Tokyo (April 16–19, 2009), Rio de Janeiro (April 27–May 2, 2009) and Madrid (May 5–8, 2009).[8] Under the leadership of Nawal El Moutawakel, the Evaluation Commission released its report on September 2, 2009; one month prior to the election.[9][10] With the presence of the heads of state from all four Candidate cities, the 121st IOC Session took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009.[11] Chicago begun the presentations at Bella Center; followed by Tokyo, Rio de Janeiro and Madrid; which were attended by several celebrities such as the King of Spain, Oprah Winfrey and Pele.[12][13] Before the vote, the IOC Evaluation Commission presented its report to the Session.[12] Chicago fell in the first round, followed by Tokyo, after the eligible IOC members have been asked to vote, in a three-round exhaustive ballot process.[14][15] Rio de Janeiro defeated Madrid in the final round by 66 votes over 32, winning the rights to host the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.[16][17] Brazil will be the first lusophone country and Rio de Janeiro the first city in South America to host the Summer Olympics.[18] The announcement was made by Jacques Rogge, president of the IOC, in a widely broadcast ceremony.[19] The lengthy and intensive bidding process, considered to be one of the tightest in history, was marked by several controversies such as espionage, racism and opposition movements.[20] Out of the six cities that failed to be awarded the 2016 Olympics, four of them have bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics. Baku, Doha, Madrid and Tokyo were official Applicant Cities, with Madrid and Tokyo advancing to become Candidate Cities.